|biː tɑnɑː gədə̌gə||I’m Tana.|
|tɑntæː ʊːlʤsə̌n dɑːn jix bɑjə̌rlʤ bæːn||It’s nice to meet you.|
|tɑnæː nər ʧin xən be||What is your name?|
|tər bɑgʃ biʃ tər bɔl sʊrə̌gʧ||He’s not a teacher. He’s a student.|
|mɑrgɑːʃ ʊːlʤjɑː||See you tomorrow.|
A: biː tɑnɑː gədə̌gə tɑnæː nər ʧin xən be
B: biː bɑːtə̌r gədə̌gə tɑntæː ʊːlʤsə̌n dɑːn jix bɑjə̌rlʤ bæːn
A: biː bɑs bɑjə̌rlʤ bæːn
Student 1: bɑgʃ, tɑnæː ɑldə̌r xən be
Teacher: biː bɑt gədə̌g ʧiː jɑmə̌r nər tæː be?
Student 1: biː tɑnɑː gədə̌gə
Teacher: tər bɑgʃ mon ʊː?
Student 1: tər bɑgʃ biʃe tər bɔl sʊrə̌gʧ
|Sometimes a vowel sound is added to the end of a word. Compare /bæːn/ and /bæːnɑː/, /biʃ/ and /biʃe/, /bɑgʃ/ and /bɑgʃɑ/. This doesn’t change the meaning of the word, though it may change the emphasis or feeling. Don’t let that final vowel stop you from finding the correct meaning in the dictionary.|
A: tər ____ mon ʊː?
B: tər ____ biʃe tər bɔl ____
bi _____ tænnɑː
|Be sure to say both n’s in /tennɑː/. It is more like a long /n/. This is the word for “know,” as in “I know somebody.” There is a different word we will learn for when we want to say we “know” some bit of knowledge.|
|The /ig/ is used to connect the verb and its object. We will learn more about that some other time. For now we can just learn to say these sentences. It can be pronounced /ig/, /i/, or /g/ depending on the speaker and the word it follows.|
There are a lot of ways to ask what somebody’s name is. It will help to become familiar with them so that you can understand when someone asks you.
|tɑnæː ɑldə̌r xən gədəg be?||This is probably the best one to use for when you want to be polite. /ɑldə̌r/ is a very respectful word for name.|
|tɑnæː nər ʧin xən be?||This is also a polite way of asking.|
|ʧiː jɑmə̌r nər tæː be?||This is a more casual ways of asking. If you were asking a child their name your could use this one. /ʧiː/ is the casual form of “you.”|
|tɑ jɑmə̌r ɔbə̌g tæː be?||/ɔbə̌g/ means family name. However, many Mongolians do not have or use a family name.|
Here are a couple ways to say “My name is Tana.” If it confuses you to know more than one way to say something then just skip this section. You only need to know one way to say it anyway.
- bi tɑnɑː gədə̌gə
- miniː nər tɑnɑː gədə̌gə
And here are a couple ways to say “Nice to meet you.” The second one is more like “Nice to know you.”
- tɑntæː ʊːlʤsə̌n dɑːn jix bɑjə̌rlʤ bæːn
- tɑntæː tænə̌lsə̌n dɑːn jix bɑjə̌rlʤ bæːn
A: bi tər hun ig tæn ugue tər xən gədəg be?
B: tər tɑnɑː gədə̌g
A: tər ɑmerə̌k hun mon ʊː?
B: mon tər bɔl ɑmerə̌k hun
|Here is another example of a word with and without a vowel sound at the end: /gədə̌g/ and /gədə̌gə/. Same meaning, just a variety in pronunciation.|
|tɑnɑː||Tana (a common girl’s name)|
|tɑntæː||with you (polite)|
|dɑːn||grammar particle (that is the technical term for I don’t know exactly what it does yet)|
|be, bœ||question particle (used with wh- question words)|
|tər||he, she, it|
|bɑːtə̌r||Baatar (common boy’s name)|
|jɑmə̌r||what, what kind of|
|mon||to be, yes|
|tæn-||know (a person)|
|tɑnig||you (polite) (verb object)|
|ʧɑmə̌g||you (casual) (verb object)|
|tərig||him, her, it (verb object)|
|tænə̌l-||to know, meet|
From what I know so far, verbs are going to give us a lot of trouble. Mongolian verbs are going to make Spanish verb conjugation look like child’s play. But I’m hoping that if we focus on the speaking we will gradually pick up how the verbs work as we need it. Anyway, we need to know a little bit about verbs now.
Mongolian verbs have a stem or root that doesn’t change. However, various suffixes are added to the root to change the tense or meaning. We have seen a little of this already. For example, /ɔʧ-/ is the root of the verb “go.” Adding the /-nɔː/ suffix we get /ɔʧnɔː/, which means “will go.”
From now on, rather than adding every single form of a verb to the dictionary, we will just add the root with a hyphen after it. That way you will know it is a verb. You can then add the endings as you learn them. In today’s vacabulary we had /ʊlʤ-/, /tæn-/, and /tænə̌l-/.
How do you say the following words:
- you (casual)
- your (casual)
- what kind of
How do you say the following sentences:
- What is your name?
- My name is ….
- Nice to meet you.
- She’s not a policewoman. She is a doctor.
- See you next week.
- Is she your younger sister?
- Is he a teacher?
- I know that teacher.
Review by saying the following:
- How is your health?
- I’m not busy.
- How are you?
- Is your work busy?
- Today is the 11th.
- Thank you.
- It’s 2011 this year.
If you were able to say most of these things correctly then you are ready to go on to lesson five. If not, then keep practicing! You can also download the audio for the whole lesson so that you can practice listening while walking the dog. Just right-click the link below and choose “Save Link As…” to download.
Main lesson 4
If you have any questions about this lesson or if you notice a mistake, then please leave a comment below. If I don’t know the answer myself, then I will ask our teachers.